A carcinoma generally needs a long time (over years) to develop from a polyp. Men and women are almost equally affected. The rectum carcinoma occurs more often with advancing years; persons under the age of 40 are rarely affected. Symptoms are anal bleeding, secretion of mucus and new appearing irregular bowel movement. However, many of these symptoms appear more often in haemorrhoid diseases and in an inflammation of the rectum and in an anal fissure.
A diagnosis is performed by a rectoscopy and a biopsy. A preventive examination is particularly important in this area (a coloscopy from the age of 55 years up), to detect the pre-stage of this illness (polyps) very early.
A treatment is most various; small tumours could be treated with an outpatient surgery. More advanced tumours are treated with an elimination of the rectum. The sphincter stays intact. Lies the tumour less than 2 cm near the sphincter, the sphincter has to be eliminated as well. In this case, an artificial exit of the intestine will be applied on the left hypogastric region. Depending on the stage of the tumour radiation and perhaps a chemo-therapy will be carried out.